The Tashkent Agreement, signed on January 10, 1966, is a landmark peace agreement that ended the second war between India and Pakistan. The agreement was signed between Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan in the Uzbekistan capital of Tashkent.
The Tashkent Agreement aimed to restore peace and normalcy between the two countries and to facilitate the return of their respective armed forces to their respective sides of the border. The agreement also aimed to promote friendship and cooperation between India and Pakistan.
The main provisions of the Tashkent Agreement were as follows:
1. Both India and Pakistan agreed to cease hostilities and not to resort to armed force against each other.
2. The two countries agreed to withdraw their armed forces to the positions held before the outbreak of the war.
3. Both India and Pakistan agreed to restore diplomatic and economic relations and to take steps to normalize their relations.
4. The two countries agreed to hold discussions on various issues, including the settlement of the Kashmir dispute, and to work towards a peaceful resolution of their differences.
5. The Tashkent Agreement also established a joint Indo-Pakistani commission to investigate the causes of the war and to suggest measures to prevent a recurrence.
The Tashkent Agreement was hailed as a major step towards peace and stability in South Asia. However, it was criticized by many in India who felt that the agreement did not do enough to resolve the Kashmir dispute.
Despite the initial optimism, the Tashkent Agreement failed to bring lasting peace between India and Pakistan. The two countries went to war again in 1971, which resulted in the creation of Bangladesh.
In conclusion, the Tashkent Agreement remains an important event in the history of India and Pakistan, marking a brief moment of détente in their often-turbulent relationship. While the agreement was not able to resolve all the issues between the two countries, it did pave the way for future negotiations and dialogue.